Crohn'sCanada
Addressing the alarming rise of the bacterium "Mycobacterium avium Paratuberculosis"
in the environment and the growing evidence linking this bacterium to Crohn's
disease.

 

 

 

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Founders: Diane and Michael Fagen

Contact Info: dianef84@yahoo.com

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History of Crohn's Disease, Johne's disease, Mycobacterium avium Paratubercuosis

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Perception of Risk

The Precautionary Principle

What is a Reportable Disease

Health of Animals Act, SC 1990, c 21

List of Reportable Diseases and REGULATIONS PRESCRIBING CERTAIN DISEASES AS REPORTABLE DISEASES

NRC National Science Library

Public Health Agency of Canada

Never In My Milk

Links

Messageboard

ree Republic/News Activism/Topics - Post Article

Research

La Presse,  April 8, 2001,  Never in My Milk? by Marie France Coutu

The Canadian Media


Canadian Medical and Government

Canadian Veterinary

Canadian Raw Milk Advocacy Group

 

Let's Talk



 

Taking Action

Link To Us

Does Mycobacterium Paratuberculosis cause Crohn's disease by Alan Kennedy  

(PARA) PARATUBERCULOSIS AWARENESS & RESEARCH ASS.,INC



Shafran's Gasterology Center

The Johne's Information Center

History of Early Research on Crohn's disease

Dr. B. Crohn

Got Milk? by Michael Greger, MD Updated January 2001

THE CROHN'S CONNECTION  by Lisa Chamberlain

Dire Warnings About Johne’s
Disease A wake-up call for the dairy industry?

Micobacteria and Crohn's Disease

Dr. Chiodini's Tables

American and European Links

University of Wisconsin School of Veterinary Medicine

Health Canada

Action Medical Research

 

University of Guelph

NACC

 

 
 

 

September 2009:    Possible transmission of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis through potable water: lessons from an urban cluster of Crohn's disease

 

A REPORT FROM THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF
MICROBIOLOGY COLLOQUIUM Salem, Massachusetts, August 2008

MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM PARATUBERCULOSIS: Infrequent Human Pathogen or Public Health Threat? This report is based on a colloquium, sponsored by the American Academy of Microbiology, convened June 15-17, 2007, in Salem, Massachusetts There is suspicion, supported by reports of genetic inability to interact appropriately with certain bacteria or bacterial products in some patients, that CD may have a currently unrecognized infectious origin, perhaps
environmentally derived. That CD is a set of wide-ranging symptoms, more like a syndrome than a specific
disease, suggests that if its origin is microbial, more than one etiologic agent may ultimately be identified.
Bacterial suspects at the moment include a Mycobacterium and a variant of the normal bacterial flora of the
gut, Escherichia coli. The possibility of more than one infectious cause that leads to a similar set of symptoms
confounds the research agenda to find both a cause and a cure for CD. One acknowledged potential microbial
agent of CD is Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), a microorganism that causes a gastrointestinal disease similar to CD in ruminants, including dairy cattle, called Johne’s disease (or paratuberculosis). People with CD have 7:1 odds of having a documented presence of MAP in blood or gut tissues than those who do not have CD, thus the association of MAP and CD is no longer in question (see Figure 1, page 11). The critical issue today is not whether MAP is associated with CD, but whether MAP causes CD or is only incidentally present, not an
inciter or participant in the disease process.
Please
click on any line in this message to read the balance of this
paper.

 

 

Aug. 11, 2008: Pathogen That Causes Disease In Cattle Also Associated With Crohn's Disease ScienceDaily — People with Crohn's disease (CD) are seven-fold more likely to have in their gut tissues the bacterium that causes a digestive-tract disease in cattle called Johne's disease. The role this bacterium may
or may not play in causing CD is a top research priority, ccording to a new report released by the American Academy of Microbiology.

 

 

August 2008: Empowered Doctor: Crohn's disease and Cow's milk video from the University of Liverpool
Researchers from the University of Liverpool found that a bacteria present in cow's milk called Mycobacterium
paratubuerculosis releases a molecule that prevents a type of white blood cell from killing E.coli bacteria found in the body. E.coli is known to be present in increased numbers within tissue affected by Crohn's disease. It is believed that Mycobacteria are introduced into the body via cows' milk and other dairy products. Until recently, it has been unclear how this bacterium could trigger intestinal inflammation in humans.

 


June 9, 2008 Health Canada: 2.26 Evaluation of Current Evidence for Human Exposure to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and its Association with Crohn’s Disease (CD) B. Mihajlovic1, J.M. Farber1, H. Couture1, T. Gleeson1, and H. Lim1 1 Bureau of Microbial Hazards, HPFB, Health Canada, Ottawa , ONT. / OUTPUTS/RESULTS: Canada has the highest rates of CD reported in the world todate. Foods derived
from cattle appear to be significant sources of human exposure to MAP. Presence of viable MAP has been demonstrated in surveys of commercially pasteurized retail milk and cheese in both Europe and N. America.
Other potential environmental/zoonotic sources of MAP include beef, produce and water. In spite of the fact that
an increasing number of recent studies support the role of MAP in the etiology of human disease, a scientific consensus on the cause-effect relationship has not been reached.

 

ABC News Report LDN a "Wonder Drug?"By Ali Gorman

Hershey, Pa. -May 21, 2008 (WPVI) - It's a drug already helping thousands of people battle addiction, but many
people believe it also has the potential to help tens-of-thousands of patients with diseases like Crohn's,
Multiplesclerosis, Lupus, Parkinson's and HIV. Its called low dose naltrexone or LDN. Many patients who/ve tried
it said it works and doesn't have bad side effects. But getting it to a pharmacy near you could be difficult.
Click to read on or to watch the linked video......

The Low Dose Naltrexone (LDN) group is an announcement and discussion group for those interested in LDN, and who
wish to be notified about updates to the Low Dose Naltrexone website

January 14, 2008: The Evidence for Mycobacterium Paratuberculosis in Crohn's Disease Marcel A. Behr; Vivek Kapur Abstract Purpose of review: Though long hypothesized, the putative link between Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis and Crohn's disease remains neither confirmed nor refuted.
This article reviews published contributions that directly or indirectly address this question.
Author Information Marcel A. Behra and Vivek Kapurb aDepartment of Medicine, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada bDepartment of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences and the Huck Institute, Penn State, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA Disclosure: M.B. has no conflict of interest or commercial association that may pose a conflict of interest. V.K. has a financial conflict of interest that results from issued and pending patents on M. avium paratuberculosis DNA sequences uncovered during the genome sequencing project, and the licensing of this intellectual to ANDX, Inc., a University of Minnesota based start-up company for which VK is a co-founder and stock-owner. The issued patents and pending applications are jointly owned by the University of Minnesota and the US Department of Agriculture


 

Health Canada: Bureau of Microbial Hazards, 2.26 Evaluation of Current Evidence for Human Exposure to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and its Association with Crohn's Disease (CD) Bureau of Microbial Hazards, HPFB, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON

 

July 17, 2007: From Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics:

The Diagnosis and Management of Crohn's Disease in Populations With High-Risk Rates for Tuberculosis Posted 07/17/2007 D. Epstein; G. Watermeyer; R. Kirsch /Summary Background
: Distinguishing Crohn's disease from intestinal tuberculosis in endemic areas is challenging as both conditions have overlapping clinical, radiological, endoscopic and histological characteristics. Furthermore, high rates of latent tuberculosis confer a considerable risk of reactivation once therapy for established Crohn's disease is started

 

 

2006: Health Canada: Bacterial Waterborne Pathogens - Current and Emerging Organisms of Concern #

Current research suggests a possible role for Mac organisms in the development of Crohn's disease, an inflammatory bowel disease similar to Johne's disease in sheep, cattle, and goats. Johne's disease is caused by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis have been isolated from some Crohn's patients. Although the evidence is still inconclusive, due mainly to difficulties in reliably detecting the
pathogen, improvements in detection methodologies are providing better evidence linking the pathogen to Crohn's disease (Reynolds, 2001; Hermon-Taylor and El-Zaatari, 2004)

 

April 2006: Paratuberculosis and Type I diabetes Is this the trigger? C. Thomas Dow MD * Department of Ophthalmology, University of Wisconsin, 600 Highland Avenue Madison, WI 53792, UnitedStates Chippewa Valley Eye Clinic, 2715 Damon Street, Eau Claire, WI 54701, United States Received 7 April 2006; accepted 12 April 2006 Summary Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease. The etiology of T1DM is incompletely understood but environmental agent(s) are
thought to trigger T1DM in the genetically at risk. Exposure to cow’s milk early in life is a recognized risk factor in the development of T1DM. Mycobacterium avium ss. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the cause of bovine Johne’s disease and also is thought to act as an immune antigen in Crohn’s disease and other granulomatous diseases . MAP is shed in cow’s milk and has been shown to survive pasteurization. Genetic susceptibilities, epitope homologies and epidemiologic studies are presented that support MAP as a causative agent of T1DM in the genetically at risk. c 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

 

December 13, 2007: U.K. Daily Mail: Milk bug 'stops our bodies from fighting off Crohn's
disease'
Doctors have long claimed that a bug called Mycobacterium paratuberculosis (MAP), which is found
in cattle and some milk, causes Crohn's. But the dairy industry has never accepted the link and researchers had failed to prove a connection. Now scientists at Liverpool University have identified how MAP weakens the body's defence mechanism and so allows other harmful bugs, specifically e.coli, to thrive. This e.coli, which is known to be present within Crohn's disease tissue in increased amounts, is believed to cause inflammation and sickness

 

 

December 11, 2007: MEDICAL NEWS TODAY: Bacteria In Cows' Milk May Cause Crohn's
Disease

 

 
 
 

U.K. Daily Mail: December 13, 2007: Milk bug 'stops our bodies from fighting off Crohn's
disease'
Doctors have long claimed that a bug called Mycobacterium paratuberculosis (MAP), which is found
in cattle and some milk, causes Crohn's. But the dairy industry has never accepted the link and researchers had
failed to prove a connection. Now scientists at Liverpool University have identified how MAP weakens the body's
defence mechanism and so allows other harmful bugs, specifically e.coli, to thrive. This e.coli, which is known to
be present within Crohn's disease tissue in increased amounts, is believed to cause inflammation and sickness

 

MEDICAL NEWS TODAY: December 11, 2007: Bacteria In Cows' Milk May Cause Crohn's
Disease

 

GASTROENTEROLOGY November 2007: Microbial Mannan Inhibits Bacterial Killing By Macrophages: A Possible
Pathogenic Mechanism for Crohn's Disease:
Background & Aims: Crohn’s disease (CD) is mimicked by
inherited phagocyte disorders and is associated with circulating antibodies against yeast mannan
(anti- Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody; ASCA). We speculated that mannans might impair phagocyte
function. Methods: S cerevisiae mannan was assessed for its effects on human peripheral blood neutrophils,
adherent monocytes, and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). Results: Mannan caused dose-related
increased survival of CD Escherichia coli HM605 within adherent monocytes from 24%  10.5% (control) to
114%  22.7% with mannan 1 mg/mL at 2 hours (mean  SEM, n  9; P  .0002).

 

 

08/07/07 -- ITHACA, N.Y: E. coli Bacteria Linked to Crohn's Disease: A team of Cornell University
scientists from the College of Veterinary Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College and the College of Agriculture
and Life Sciences have discovered that a novel group of E. coli bacteria containing genes similar to those
described in uropathogenic and avian pathogenic E. coli and enteropathogenic bacteria such as salmonella,
cholera, bubonic plague is associated with intestinal inflammation in patients with Crohn's disease in their
research paper published July 12 by "The ISME Journal: Multidisciplinary Journal of Microbial Ecology." The
study found an increased level of *E. coli bacteria in more inflamed areas of the small intestines instead of MAP,
a bacterium related to tubercle bacillus that has been more commonly associated with Crohn's*.
#

 

ASCA test is commercially available! In November 1998 issue of American Journal of Gastroenterology
under “What's New in GI” R. L. Young reviewed a paper on ASCA marker in Crohn’s disease (1). There has
been a surge of papers in the past six months (1-3) confirming that Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannan
antibodies (ASCA) should be considered as a significant diagnostic tool.

 

The Truro Daily News, November 23, 2007: Crohn's disease incidence high in Canada Crohn’s
disease and ulcerative colitis are two common forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). More than 170,000
Canadians have some form of Crohn’s or colitis. Canada is believed to have one of the highest incidence rates
of the disease in the world.

 



 

PUBMED

The Diagnosis and Management of Crohn's Disease in Populations With High-Risk Rates for
Tuberculosis Posted 07/17/2007 D. Epstein; G. Watermeyer; R. Kirsch /Summary
Background
: Distinguishing Crohn's disease from intestinal tuberculosis in endemic areas is challenging as both conditions
have overlapping clinical, radiological, endoscopic and histological characteristics. Furthermore, high rates of
latent tuberculosis confer a considerable risk of reactivation once therapy for established Crohn's disease is
started

 

 

THE PROOF IS MOUNTING!!!: Read about the link between Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and E. Coli

Winnipeg Free Press: Centre eyes data on bowel disease Sat Jul 28 2007 By Dr. Charles
Bernstein
1. Through updating our analysis and applying the definition, we developed databases in British
Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Nova Scotia. These databases helped us estimate that in 2005 there were
approximately 7,000 Manitobans and 170,000 Canadians with either Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. This
rate is among the highest reported in the world.

2), Recently, a collaboration between our centre and Dr. Denis Krause of the Faculty of Animal Sciences,
University of Manitoba, discovered a novel type of E. coli more associated with IBD than healthy controls.
If it can be proved that an excess of this E. coli is truly associated with either form of IBD, then specific therapies
can be developed.

3). We have found that tissues from IBD patients carry a type of bug known as E coli that is different than usual
E coli that are widely known to be in the environment. The E coli IBD patients carry is more toxic to the gut
because it releases enzymes that can injure the bowel. Our group is actively pursuing the possibility that this
E coli is an important cause of either Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis.

 

 

January 14, 2008 The Financial Post: FDA Approves TYSABRI® for the Treatment of Moderate-to-Severe Crohn’s Disease: Elan Corporation, plc (NYSE: ELN) and Biogen Idec (NASDAQ: BIIB) today announced the approval of a supplemental Biologics License Application (sBLA) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for TYSABRI® (natalizumab). TYSABRI is now approved for inducing and maintaining clinical response and remission in adult patients with moderately to severely active Crohn's disease (CD) with evidence of inflammation who have had an inadequate response to, or are unable to tolerate, conventional CD therapies and inhibitors of TNF-alpha.

 

 

September 2005: PCC Sound Consumer Health & Wellness - Expert advice:

 

Conquering Crohn’s disease by Judith Lipton, M.D." I believe that if the public becomes aware of MAP and demands testing and answers, the meat, dairy and medical industries will have no choice but to respond. Public health measures such as ultrapasteurization, animal vaccination and sanitation may prevent an increasing Crohn’s epidemic, and antibiotics and vaccination a definitive treatment." Dr. Lipton is a psychiatrist at Providence Hospital in Seattle. Doctor Lipton was diagnosed with crohn's disease in March 2004. She is presently crohn's free, due to a four antibiotic combination, as well as vast amounts of probiotics. Please read her story for additional information. http://www.pccnaturalmarkets.com/sc/0509/sc0509-hw-crohns.html

 

Paratuberculosis and Type I diabetes Is this the trigger? C. Thomas Dow MD * Department
of Ophthalmology, University of Wisconsin, 600 Highland Avenue Madison, WI 53792, United
States Chippewa Valley Eye Clinic, 2715 Damon Street, Eau Claire, WI 54701, United States Received 7 April 2006; accepted 12 April 2006 Summary Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease. The etiology of T1DM is incompletely understood but environmental agent(s) are thought to trigger T1DM in the genetically at risk. Exposure to cow’s milk early in life is a recognized risk factor in the development of T1DM. Mycobacterium avium ss. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the cause of bovine Johne’s disease and also is thought to act as an immune antigen in Crohn’s disease and other granulomatous diseases . MAP is shed in cow’s milk and has been shown to survive pasteurization. Genetic susceptibilities, epitope
homologies and epidemiologic studies are presented that support MAP as a causative agent of T1DM in the
genetically at risk. c 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Johne’s Disease (JD) Focus Farms Project An Action Research Approach designed to accelerate adoption of best practice to mitigate the impact of JD on dairy farms in Ontario. Summary report to Dairy Farmers of Ontario

Recent evidence shows the disease is more widely spread than 15 years ago due to increased animal movement from herd to herd and larger herd sizes. If infection is spreading into more herds where it can spread to more cows, JD's impact may be on the rise. JD-infected cows, even though not obviously sick, have reduced milk production and a shorter herd life over time. Another cause for concern is that the organism causing JD in cows is increasingly being studied for a possible link to Crohn's disease in people. While this association and the possibility that milk could expose people to infection are unproven, we need to nip this in the bud by curtailing the spread of infection among dairy cattle.

 

 

A Novel Multi-Antegen Virally Vectored Vaccine Against Mycobacteriaum avium Subspecies paratuberculosis

 

alt.support.crohns-colitis newsgroup : Posts by Alan Kennedy

 

GASTROENTEROLOGY November 2007: Microbial Mannan Inhibits Bacterial Killing By Macrophages: A Possible Pathogenic Mechanism for Crohn's Disease

 

Journal of Clinical Microbiology: Mycobacterium avium Subspecies Paratuberculosis Infection in Cases of Irritable Bowel Syndrome and with Comparison with Crohn's Disease and Johne's Disease: Common Neural and Immune Pathogenicities

 

A New Paradigm For Crohn's Disease: A Call to Action

 

Mcgill University Center: Visualization of Mycobacterium avium in Crohn's tissue by Oil-Immersion Microscopy


Mcgill University Center: The Evidence for Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in Crohn's Disease, by Marcel Behr M.D. and Vivek Kapur

 

International Journal of Infectious Diseases: Presence of characterization of Mycobacterium avium subspecies
paratuberculosis from clinical and suspected cases of crohn's disease and in the healthy human population in India

 

American Academy of Microbiology Colloquium: Mycobacterium avium Paratuberculosis: Infrequent human pathogen or Public Health Threat?

 

Anti-mycobacterial in Crohn's disease heals mucosa with longitudinal scars

 

The Scotsman Newpaper: Crohn's disease vaccine breakthrough announced KURT BAYER

 

LANDMARK CROHN'S DISEASE STUDY by Warwick Selby

Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 1991;55:199-202 entitled EXPERIMENTAL DISEASE IN YOUNG
CHICKENS INDUCED BY A MYCOBACTERIUM PARATUBERCULOSIS ISOLATE FROM A PATIENT WITH
CROHN’S DISEASE (H.J. Van Kruiningen, B. Ruiz and L. Gumprecht, Dept of Pathobiology, U. of Connecticut,
Stoors, CN 06269):

 

They knew it all along! Here are some quotes from the late 1970's animal studies. They had consistently shown transmissibility and induction of chronic intestinal inflammation in animals inoculated with isolates from Crohn's patients and not in animals inoculated with isolates from Ulcerative Colitis or other GI diseases
.

EARLY LESIONS OF RECURRENT CROHN’S DISEASE CAUSED BY INFUSION OF INTESTINAL CONTENTS IN EXCLUDED ILEUM

 

 


December 28, 2007 : Infectious Agents in Pediatric Crohn's This study has been completed. Objectives:
Improve the methods to collect biopsies from the colon and ileum, tissue storage techniques and best methods
to detect specific infections in children with Crohn's disease; Determine if there are specific infectious agents
that are more common in children with Crohn's disease, and; Determine if there are types of children with
Crohn's disease (e.g., children living in Boston, African American children) who may be more at risk for getting
the infections



 













 


 

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 Disclaimer:
MAP-Canada does not advocate a particular cause of Crohn's disease.  Our website is intended only to present evidence.  Our readers may draw their own conclusions.  We are not medical specialists and do not offer any treatment or nutritional advice.  Our mission is not to lay blame on any individual or industry, but rather to urge the Government of Canada to address the evidence presented on this site.

Mise au Point:
MAP-Canada ne recommande aucune théorie particulière sur la cause de la maladie de Crohn.L'intente de notre site Web est simplement de présenter certaineévidence mais vous pouvez arriver à vos propres conclusions.Nous ne pouvons donner de conseils de nature médicale ou alimentaire. Notre mission ne consiste aucunement à blâmer un individuou une industrie mais
plutôt à s'assurer que le Gouvernement du Canada aborde l'évidence que nous présenton

 

 

MAP-Canada would like to extend a very sincere thank you to Yanik Chicoine at www.mirweb.com of Montreal for his generosity and assitance in hosting and the mounting of this site.

MAP-Canada aimerait remercier sincerement Yanik Chicoine a www.mirweb.com de Montreal pour sons générosité et leur assistance pour l'hébergement et la programation du site